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The focus of this book is on the effects of sea ice reduction in recent years and decades, and the consequences for shipping - especially on the sailing times, by using the North-East Passage. The northern sea route is becoming increasingly important not only for the Russian coastal region and the exploration and extraction of natural resources, but also for ships using the North-East Passage as a transit route between Europe and Asia. The historical changes of sea ice is presented, especially the reduction since 2000. To explain the change of sea ice, reference is made to the interaction between sea ice extent and sea ice volume. Details of the sailing times for five different routes, and for three different types of ships have been calculated. The route from Rotterdam (NL) to Yokohama (Japan) via the traditional Suez route is adopted and compared with the sailing times along the northern sea route. All values are calculated by using a program, developed by the Hamburgische Schiffbau Versuchsanstalt. The program takes into account the ship's parameters and the loss of speed due to wind-, water and sea ice resistance as well as shallow water effect. In addition, risks to the environment due to increased use of the Northern Sea Route, as well as meteorological characteristics (Hadley Cells) within the Arctic region are also highlighted.


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